Friday, 27 July 2012

Crime Scene Investigation - CasTips - Casting in Standing Water

How often have you encountered footprints or tire tracks at the bottom of a puddle? Granted, this doesn't happen often but when it does-desperate measures are needed to recover those impressions.

As I have indicated in other articles, "CasTips" (casting shortcut tips) deal with crime scene investigation tips explaining the various methods and materials available for recovering impression evidence at crime scenes.

Many liquid silicone formulations will just float on top of the water's surface. Casting plaster then seems like the best possible choice to make a useful cast. Here's a technique I tried several years ago during a training session.

My students were from a state investigative agency, and one student asked, "What about a footprint in a stream-bed or puddle? How do we salvage that?"

I had no idea, but suggested we try a few techniques-maybe something would work. It's always best to experiment before being faced with the real thing.

At that time I had recently learned about dental stone as a casting medium, and we were using it during this training class. Nearby was a slow-moving stream so one jack-booted student walked across the stream-bed. Sure enough, impressions were visible. Here's the procedure we used:

"CasTips" for recovering impressions in standing water:

1. Gather up some rocks along the stream-bed and build a protective dam across the line of flow. Don't try to dam the entire flow-just use enough damming materials to divert the flow.

2. We had several plastic bags with a pre-measured amount of dental stone in each one. About 2 - lbs. per bag.

3. No special preparation was taken. We did place a casting frame around the impression to contain the plaster, and then just opened the bag and begin sprinkling the plaster onto the water's surface directly above the impression.

4. The dental stone obligingly sank down to the bottom and collected over the footprint. We added a second bag that was mixed with water just to be sure, but that was probably overkill.

5. Naturally it took a while for the plaster to harden. While waiting for this to happen we set up sites to cast several damp footprints along the stream bank.

6. After about an hour or so I reached down and felt the cast and decided it was hard enough to lift it out. It worked!

We set the cast aside allowing more curing time as we worked on the other impressions.

Since that time, at another training session, I tried out a different casting material. A product available in pre-measured bags. Each bag has a built-in water capsule. To use the package merely apply pressure to the capsule until it breaks, and then squeeze the daylights out of the bag until a smooth mixture results.

But since my class wanted to see an underwater footprint recovered, we left the water capsule intact. (Special Note: It may be a good idea to use the water capsule, mix it up, and pour this mixture into the water. This may speed up the process.) Just behind our classroom we found a muddy area (it had rained for 24 hours straight). We found a couple of footprint impressions filled with water. This process provided a couple of excellent casts.

The pre-measured casting formula, known as Shake-N-Cast, is a variation of dental stone and has an added ingredient-Portland cement. This makes a super-hard cast under most conditions, and it is ideal for casting submerged impressions at crime scenes.
Visit the CSI TECH BLOG for more Crime Scene Investigation Tips

Expert Author Don Penven is a freelance writer and professional photographer based in Raleigh and Morehead City, NC

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Thursday, 26 July 2012

Meet Minimum Requirements for CNA Certification Renewal

Licensed CNAs have to meet the minimum employment hours working on the job to apply for CNA certification renewal online. There will be no need to retake any certification examination if the individual has met the state's minimum number of hours worked in a health care facility within the past two years. This minimum amount of hours to work in a medical facility as a CNA will vary from one state to another. Typically, it is between 24 to 48 hours of supervised work conducted by either a doctor or a registered nurse.

Continuing Education Units

Some state licensing boards require that certified nursing assistants participate in continuing education in order to sate current with technology and techniques, but also as a requirement to renew a license. Many healthcare facilities offer programs that fulfill the state need for continuing education units, or CEUs. Additionally, working CNAs may find CEU courses available online in order to fulfill requirements for renewing a license. Since the Internet is becoming an integral part of everyday life, more than 50 percent of all CNA renewals now take place online. However, not every state offers this option, so it is necessary to make sure that the state in which you work and reside offers online renewal. It is highly recommended that working CNAs complete the license renewal process long before the current one expires. Waiting too long may jeopardize an individual's employment status.

Information Needed To Renew A CNA License

First, find out if online state licensing renewal is possible in the state where you work and live. Payment for renewing your license if it can be conducted online is always secure. Go to your state licensing board's website and see if an online renewal form is available. Following is the typical type of information needed to fill in the form in order to complete the renewal process:

Full name as it currently appears in the State Board of nursing databases
The nursing assistant certification number appearing on your current license
Your valid e-mail address for contact and listing purposes
A valid credit card for payment. Note: many states do accept debit card payments but make sure before attempting to make an online license renewal

Other Facts To Know About The CNA License Renewal Process

Most states issue CNAs a two-year license. Most of the state CNA certificates display the renewal date upon it, while others may just have the original certification date. If individuals do not know if a CNA certification is currently valid because it has been lost or damaged, always consult with the State Registry through either an online access or by calling on the telephone.

For more great information about CNA certification we have a range of great tools and resources on our website so visit us today.

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Wednesday, 25 July 2012

Tips to Choose an Online Criminal Justice Degree Program

Are you looking for an exciting and meaningful career in the field of Criminal Justice? If yes then it is a smart idea to enroll in an online criminal justice degree program. The field of criminal justice is growing very fast and offers a wide variety of careers. An online degree program can help you to secure a job in state, federal as well as private sector law enforcement organizations.

There are many things which attract students and professionals to online criminal justice programs. This program is perfect for the people who really want to help people. Entering a criminal justice program can be a vital step if the person is not satisfied with his current job.

A person who has completed a criminal justice program from a reputed online university can work at the position of a Corrections officer, crime scene investigator, ATF agent, court reporter, probation officer or a police officer.

Proper education and practical skills are very important for performing well in above mentioned jobs. There are many things which should be kept in mind while choosing an online degree program. Lets go through some of the vital points.

The university you are going to choose should be accredited and authorized by the appropriate governing body. It is a smart idea to do some research and home work before choosing an online degree program.
If you are planning to join an online criminal justice program then it is a good idea to ask for the number of students enrolled in the program. One should also try to contact the student who is currently enrolled in the program or completed the degree program.There are many universities which display the testimonies of the old students on their websites and notice boards.
Students teacher ratio also plays an important role in improving the quality of education and training. So one should always check for the student teacher ratio before joining a degree program.
There are universities which also offer career services and financial aid programs.So it is a good idea to go for a university which offer scholarships and other beneficial programs.
One should never forget about the technical support and student services. A reputed online university always provide high quality technical support for their students.
It is a good idea to spend some time with a professional or a professor. He can help you a lot in choosing the right degree program according to your career needs. One should always spend some time on the internet before making any further steps. There are many websites which give lots of genuine information about online universities and degree programs.

After choosing the right program, your success will depend upon your active participation in online assignments and exams. Participation in chat rooms and discussion boards can help a lot in enhancing your professional skills. There are many more things which should be considered but above tips can help you a lot in making the right choices.

Are you looking for more information then feel free to visit and

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Tuesday, 24 July 2012

Understanding the Depth of the Hebrew Alphabet

In my previous articles, I wrote that there are 22 letters in the Hebrew Alphabet which interestingly correspond to the pieces of our DNA. The exact amount of pieces of our DNA is the exact amount of letters in the Hebrew Alphabet. Having that said, I am going to suggest to you that every single letter in God's language not only has meaning but also has a prophetic meaning.

It also has a number attached to it and has a picture behind it, each letters' original pictograph is called Paleo Hebrew. So as we're walking through the Hebrew Alphabet what we're learning is our spiritual journey. We're not learning the language like you would learn French or Spanish or English or any other language for the sake of learning the language. Yahweh, when He speaks, everything that He says has an incredible significance and a meaning.

As a matter of fact, the entire universe was created not in Spanish, not in English but in His language that we call Hebrew so it shouldn't surprise us that these letters will overwhelmed us with their depth when we try to understand them. Now, the people that have already been through my Hebrew class and those have been attending the Passion for Truth Ministries, they're seeing that there is far more than meets the eye with the Hebrew Alphabet.

So now let's review the first two letters of the Hebrew Alphabet. The very first letter of the Hebrew Alphabet is Aleph. Its Ancient Paleo Hebrew pictograph kind of resembles an Ox head. Aleph means strength, power or leader. The strength of the leader is what Aleph really means. Like I said before, every letter has a meaning.

The next letter we come to is Beit. Its ancient pictograph resembles the form of a house or inside of a house which is why Beit means house or tent in those days.It means a floor plan or a place where a family can be dwelling in. Everything that have to do with a house, a family, a piece of land or a tent is Beit.

Aleph and Beit are the first two letters put together in the Hebrew Alphabet so you should be surprised that the very first letter of your bible is Beit, starting with the book of Genesis which is strange because Beit is the second letter of the alphabet until you realize that Aleph is a silent letter and it precedes all the other letters. It is like a spirit, like breath. So when you put Aleph, the silent letter, before Genesis 1:1 together with the very first letter of your alphabet, Beit. In pictograph, you will have the strength of the leader of the house and it just so happens that Aleph and Beit make up the Hebrew word father. So it's amazing even in the first two letters of the Alphabet we have a picture of our Heavenly Father.

I'm Jim Staley Mo. It is my heart's desire that you will be challenged and transformed through the materials and resources that are in this article. Whether it's about Jewish holidays, the Sabbath Day, or the meaning of Christmas, history of Easter, origin of Christmas, or any other Hebraic topics, we want you to know the truth because the truth will only do one thing!

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Monday, 23 July 2012

Don't Fear The CNA Certification Exam

People seeking to become a certified nursing assistant must first attend a qualified program and then sit for a certification test. The exam is not that difficult to understand, but does require the person taking the test to display certain levels of knowledge and skills competency. This can only be obtained through study enrolled in an accredited training program. It is a good idea to understand what is required before taking the test. This will go a long way toward preparation for successfully completing the exam and then finding a job as a licensed CNA.

Two Sections Make up the Test

In order to obtain a license for employment as a certified nursing assistant, once graduating from an accredited program, students will have to take a national licensing exam that is composed of two parts - a written exam as well as a clinical one. The written exam typically takes place on the last day of course attendance, although it could be scheduled for a completely different time. Furthermore, test takers will not be allowed to take the clinical portion of the national exam until passing the written test. The written test examines the test taker's knowledge about everything learned in class including basic care and medical concepts. Once the written exam as been successfully completed, CNA candidates will then move on to the clinical exam.

Testing Acquired CNA Skills

The clinical exam is only a little different since it requires CNA candidates to display the skills and care techniques learned through school applied upon an actual person. This is also known as a "practical" examination requiring the CNA candidate to demonstrate knowledge of various care concepts that have been learned in a classroom setting. Candidates will be required to demonstrate such activities as proper hand washing and other sanitary/safety techniques. Additionally, candidates will be called upon to demonstrate how to properly transport and move patients keeping in mind the need to always preserve personal dignity since patients are in a constant state of vulnerability. Additionally, those daily care chores such as changing bedpans and other personal patient hygiene needs supplied by a caretaker must also be demonstrated successfully. These demonstrations are supervised by a state approved medical examiner on a date separate from the written exam.

Finding Out Immediately if Test is Successful

An important factor to know is that once the clinical exam is been completed, the test taker will find out right on the spot whether they have passed or failed. It is highly recommended that any candidate for the CNA certification exam takes a practice test that can be found online

Proper test preparation will lead to successfully completing the exam.

For more great information about CNA certification we have a range of great tools and resources on our website so visit us today.

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Sunday, 22 July 2012

The Hebrew Letter Hey

The letter Hey is the fifth letter of the Hebrew Alphabet. It's ancient Paleo Hebrew pictograph form kind of looks like a Dalet but with a Yod inside. The Yod represents the hand of power, it's the first letter of the name of God and so what we have is the power of the open door.

The evolution of the letter Hey starts with a pictograph of a man jumping up and down and then the Ktav Ivri which looks like a comb in its pictograph. Then you have the Ktav Ashurit which is also known as the classical Hebrew. Back in the time when Yeshua walked on this earth, this is what He would have looked at and as well as maybe an older script that might have been available on scrolls. And then today we have the Book Type. Hey's number is five because it's the fifth letter of the Hebrew Alphabet. I have mentioned in my previous articles that all numbers have meanings and spiritual meanings as well.

If we look for the deeper meaning of the Ancient Paleo pictograph which looks like a man jumping up and down, fundamentally it means behold! look! revelation! That is what the fifth letter in the Hebrew Alphabet means. It is revelation, to behold, something new, you've gained new insight, God has revealed something to you and your so happy so you jump up and down. If today, this person would look like a man in a worship service, he is a man with his hands raised praising the Father because he has revelation that He so deserves to be praised.

Hey also has some representations. It represents the breath of the Almighty, the divine revelation and His light. The foundation of Hey is the breath of God, divine revelation and light because light is something that brings revelation. It reveals something. Light is mentioned five times on the first of creation which is the number of Hey. Light, "or" in Hebrew is mentioned five times in the first day of creation which is definitely not a coincidence.

There is a connection in everything, if we can put together all the coincidences just found probably just in the first chapter of our bible, you can write another 66 books just about connecting the dots that we can't even see. He's a very big God and He is very good in what He does. Everything He does is for a reason. The breath, it is composed of a Yod inside of a Dalet and is pronounced only with breath. The Hey is amazing because it's not a guttural sound, it's pronounced not with the lips, it is pronounced just with breath, Hey. Anytime you have a silent letter or a letter that is coming from just breath, it is very powerful because you are connecting with the Ruach, you're connecting with the spirit because the spirit is like wind, it is like air which moves across the vocal chords and creates a sound and we're dealing with the spirit.

I'm Jim Staley Mo. It is my heart's desire that you will be challenged and transformed through the materials and resources that are in this article. Whether it's about Jewish holidays, the Sabbath Day, or the meaning of Christmas, history of Easter, origin of Christmas, or any other Hebraic topics, we want you to know the truth because the truth will only do one thing!

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Saturday, 21 July 2012

Why Do We Have Five Fingers On Each Hand?

In my previous articles, you have known that the Hebrew Alphabet's fifth letter, Hey, has some reppresentations. Another representation is the Five fingers on each hand. You should also know the number four is the number of creation and that's Dalet in the Hebrew alphabet.

The letter Dalet is the door or the wood in the earth. Wood comes from the earth and it is connected to the four corners of the earth or to creation. The perfect creation is the number four that's why it says "the four corners of the earth" and the four angles and so on and so forth.

So you have the number four which is creation plus Aleph which is the silent letter connected to the Ruach of the Father and that is equals to Hey. Dalet plus Aleph brings revelation. The number four which is creation plus the Father is equals revelation and we ultimately know what is revealed and that is the son. How is that connected to the five fingers? Here's how:

You pick up things with five fingers. Now, I want you to look at your hand for just a second because this is fascinating. There are a million ways He could have made the hand but He made four fingers so close together and the fifth one further apart. Why? because if you notice, if you take your thumb and you fold it in, it would be really difficult to pick up anything. You can't really do anything with four fingers as well.

As a matter of fact, even if you had 10 fingers right across in a row, it wouldn't really do you any good even if it was a hundred fingers. You must have a separate finger. Our five fingers is the first five letters of the Hebrew Alphabet right on our hand and we don't even know it.

You have the perfect four corners of the earth which is represented by our four fingers that are together and you have the Father which is represented by the thumb. Without the Father, you cannot do anything. This is why Yeshua says that no man comes to the Father except through Him, this is why He says that you can do all things through the Messiah, you can't do anything by yourself. You must have the help of the fundamental foundation stone of your hand which is your thumb. This is Hey, revelation. Without revelation, there's nothing and life quite frankly will be very boring.

I'm Jim Staley Mo. It is my heart's desire that you will be challenged and transformed through the materials and resources that are in this article. Whether it's about Jewish holidays, the Sabbath Day, or the meaning of Christmas, history of Easter, origin of Christmas, or any other Hebraic topics, we want you to know the truth because the truth will only do one thing!

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Friday, 20 July 2012

The Letter Hey and What It Represents

The letter Hey has some representations. Some of the things that Hey represents is the breath of the Almighty, the divine revelation, and God's light. Those three things are the foundation of Hey because light is something that brings revelation, it reveals something. Take note that on the first day of creation, the word light is mentioned five times.

Light which is "or" in Hebrew is mentioned five times in the first day of creation and it's definitely not a coincidence. There is a connection between that, it was mentioned five times! Isn't it five the number of the letter Hey? It's amazing because if we can put together all the "coincidences" found in just the first chapter of our bible, we can probably write another 60 plus books just about getting the dots connected that we don't even see. Our God is a huge God and He is great in what He does. Everything He does is for a reason.

Breath is represented by the letter Hey because it is composed of a Yod inside of a Dalet and is pronounced only with breath. So the letter Hey is amazing because it's not a guttural sound, it's pronounced not with the lips, it is pronounced just with breath, "Hey". Anytime you have a silent letter or a letter that is coming from just breath, you are connecting with the Holy Spirit or with the Ruach, you're connecting with the it because the spirit is like wind, it is like air which moves across the vocal chords and creates a sound.

Psalms 33:6 says, "By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of His mouth." By the breath of His mouth, the host of all of heaven was made.

Colossians 1:16 says, "For by Him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, all things were created by Him and for Him."

The reason why I included the verses above in this article is because I want to show you that Yeshua is connected to the Old Testament and also to the New Testament as well. You should also know that the five lights is connected on the first day of creation and also to Yeshua as well. How? If you remember one of the famous quotes of Jesus Chirist, He says "I am the light!" He is the "or", therefore He is the five lights on the first day of creation.

I'm Jim Staley Mo. It is my heart's desire that you will be challenged and transformed through the materials and resources that are in this article. Whether it's about Jewish holidays, the Sabbath Day, or the meaning of Christmas, history of Easter, origin of Christmas, or any other Hebraic topics, we want you to know the truth because the truth will only do one thing!

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Thursday, 19 July 2012

Religion in Ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptian pharaoh was considered powerful and was also thought of as a god. So the king controlled the religion of the time. This made different gods worshipped and celebrated through particular periods in ancient Egypt history.

At no point in time did ancient Egypt have a consistent form of religion. There were specified divine beings that were prominent and worshipped all over Egypt; gods like Osiris, Horus, Amun, Ra as well as Isis. Amun was the closest god to being a monotheistic deity.

It was thought that Amun represented the crucial and concealed forces.

The Egyptians even believed that gods could merge with other gods. For awhile Horus combined with Ra coming to be Re-Horakhty "Ra, who is Horus of the Two Horizons." He was believed to be in command of the sky, the world, and underworld. Re-Horakhty was usually depicted as a falcon.

At another point Ra combined with Amun. Amun was thought to generate breath and was connected to wind not the sunrays. This god come from Thebes. Ancient Egyptians worshipped Ra, the sun god as well as Amun during the New Kingdom so to make it easier, tthe two gods merged into one as Amun-Ra.

Osiris was considered the greatest king of Egypt. Then after he was murdered by his brother, he became the lord of the afterlife.

Isis was a goddess in ancient Egypt whose worship even spread to the early Roman and Greek civilizations. Iris represented the best woman, quality, miracle and fertility. She was likewise Horus's parent.

The god Horus was one of the popular gods worshipped in ancient Egypt. Horus was represented by the falcon as well as was the pharaoh. Horus was known as the god of the sky, as well as protection.

The Egyptians believed in the afterlife. They believed that as soon as you perished, you still had ka in your body. Ka which was in need of food as well as water to thrive.

They additionally believed that the body had ba. Ba was the someone's individuality. The only technique to remove Ba was a ceremony. The moment Ba was free it would rejoin ka and live as an akh.

The Egyptians believed that the body had to be conserved because Ba returned to the body every evening to obtain brand-new life.

In early ancient Egyptian history, it was believed that only the pharaoh's had Ba, thus just they would be mummified with a tomb constructed to shield them. Normally this tomb was a pyramid.

During the New Kingdom, the ability to have Ba as well as the opportunity of an afterlife was given to all Egyptians.

Funerary Texts were an important part in ancient Egypt religion. These words were created to make certain souls made it to the afterlife.

Check out for more information on this amazing culture.

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Wednesday, 18 July 2012

What Is Grace?

We have already learned in my previous articles that the fifth letter of the Hebrew Alphabet is the letter. Interestingly enough, the number five which is also Hey's number equivalent represents grace.

Having that said, may I add that Yeshua will be always connected to grace. What is grace exactly? Let's decipher the difference between grace and mercy right here in this article because a lot of times there's confusion on that. Grace is unmerited favor, it's giving you something that you don't deserve. Mercy is giving you something that you do deserve.

So if you break the law, you deserve the penalty of death and God gives you mercy. He does not give the penalty that you do deserve instead He gives you grace which is the most incredible. Not only that God doesn't give you the punishment that you deserve but also He gives you something that you don't deserve.

For those that repent, there's a reward of grace immediately. That is the power of the gospel on a nutshell of the fifth letter, the number of grace. The number five is also the number of Torah because Torah is the first five books of the bible, Genesis through Deuteronomy.

Also, the number five is connected to the body. Like I always said in my teachings, the physical is connected to the spiritual and the spiritual is connected to the physical. People who have been through my Hebrew classes have heard me said that a million times.

I am going to let you understand a couple of neat connections as we move through this because everything God gave us is a picture for us. It is constantly have to be a reminder of returning to Him. Everything that we do and everything that we see have to connect.

There's a reason why we have two eyes, God could have made us with one but I mean it would be a little bizarre. It will totally solve all the cross-eyed problem for a lot of people. What I am trying to say is God could have made us with one eye but why did He make us with two? The reason is because there are two kingdoms, there's the male and there's the female. They come together and they see together like a husband and a wife. You can't look at two opposite directions or you will be split. You have to be looking in the same direction. That's why there are two eyes, it's a constant reminder of the two becoming one.

I'm Jim Staley Mo. It is my heart's desire that you will be challenged and transformed through the materials and resources that are in this article. Whether it's about Jewish holidays, the Sabbath Day, or the meaning of Christmas, history of Easter, origin of Christmas, or any other Hebraic topics, we want you to know the truth because the truth will only do one thing!

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Tuesday, 17 July 2012

Online Continuing Education Courses - Advantages Over Classroom Courses

There has been an upward trend in online education for the last six to eight years. The stigma of online education started to disappear when large, accredited schools starting offering online degrees. Many adults returning to school take online classes. A typical online student works full time and has a family. They cannot attend classes on a weekly basis but, still need additional education to advance their career. Online classes have a lot to offer students. First and foremost, they are more flexible than classroom courses. Many programs are asynchronous, meaning you do not have to be online at a specific time for an online chat or lecture. Most classes consist of case studies, discussion board postings, and quizzes. Second, you can complete the online courses from anywhere in the world with internet access. You can do your assignments from your home, office or even automobile! This feature is very beneficial because you are able to save money on gas, not worry about parking and complete your homework no matter where you are located. Finally, for most Universities you are learning the same information online as you would if you were sitting in a classroom. Meaning, you are not getting any type of discounted degree. This feature is probably the most important. Many professors actually teach both online and classroom courses making sure the content of the courses are the same. This is also important because you will be receiving the same degree and diploma as a student who did all of their coursework on campus.

Expense is another factor to consider when looking into online courses. Many times colleges and Universities will drop their tuition rate for online classes. Since there is no real overhead they are able to offer the same degree programs at a lower cost. Students really appreciate this and take advantage of it all the time. They receive the same education and degree at a discounted price. As long as the school is accredited any employer should accept the degree. It should not matter if the program was done online or on campus. Regional accreditation will allow a student to transfer classes from one school to another or pursue higher education; such as a master's degree or PhD. This is very important since you never know where life could take you in the future. Don't waste your time and money completing a degree from a school that is not regionally accredited!

Please Visit

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Monday, 16 July 2012

Interferons: A Review Article Especially With Immunological Orientation

Interferons are actually glycoproteins, were known first to be produced because of viral interaction with the body, which had the capability to inhibit the production of viral products. There are two major types of interferons. Type I interferons that include interferon alpha and interferon beta; produced by leukocytes and fibroblasts. Type II interferon includes interferon gamma;, which is typically produced by cells of the immune system, like CD8

Sunday, 15 July 2012

Ancient Egyptian Laws

The ancient Egyptian judicial process began with the pharaoh. He was the head of the legal system and the one responsible for creating regulations, providing justice and also sustaining law and order.

The judicial process was not a separate body from the ancient Egyptian central government. Egyptians did not have expert judges. In fact there was no word for judge in the Egyptian terminology.

Even though no book of regulations from ancient Egypt have actually been located, court files show that Egyptian law was typically based on a common-sense approach. In fact Egyptian law promoted reaching agreements to solve frictions rather than staying with a complicated collection of laws.

The New Kingdom had a council of elders called kenbet. They were responsible for court cases entailing small claims and also minor misunderstandings. The senior citizens were from regional governments and also priests whose recognized position in the temples allowed them to be judges.

The ancient Egyptian judicial system even had a "Great Kenbet" which the vizier or pharaoh chaired and consisited of important officials. Typically even more major crimes including murder, main land deals and tomb theft were heard at this court.

Plaintiffs and defendants defended themselves, they also swore an oath that they told the truth. Egyptian women were likewise allowed to pursue justice in court.

The Egyptian authorities in some cases took on dual roles as both the prosecutor as well as the judge. The central government was known to torture the accused with beatings to get a confession and squeal on any associates.

Court scribes were utilized to document cases, and consensus were used for future references.

The abuse for minor criminal offenses for ancient Egyptians were either to be fined, their property confiscated, forced to do labor, beat, face mutilation, or exiled from the country depending on how serious the crime was.

Major crimes like assassination and tomb robbery were punished by execution. Egyptians were executed by decapitation, drowning or by being impaled on a stake.

Punishment might even include the defendant's family if the crime was severe enough.

Throughout the New Kingdom, oracles played a role in the Egyptian judicial system. Oracles would give justice in both civil and criminal court cases.

The process was usually to ask the god "yes" or "no" questions. Clergymans were responsible for understanding the god's decision. Sometimes the god swung right or left and would point at the yes or no answer on papyrus.

Check out for more information on this amazing society.

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Saturday, 14 July 2012

Ancient Egyptian Pyramids

Ancient Egypt pyramids were discovered in the Nile Valley. Egyptians believed that when a pharaoh passed away, he turned into Osiris, the king of the dead. They also believd that the next pharaoh in line was the god Horus, god of the sky and protector to the sun god Ra.

Ancient Egyptians believed that a part of the pharaoh's spirit ki was believed to stay with his body. They believed if the dead king was not protected the new pharaoh would not succeed as king. This mean something bad would happen to the ancient Egyptians, it could mean war or famine.

To prevent this catastrophe from occurring, each pharaoh that died was mummified to guard his ki. The pharaoh woud also be buried with any items that he wanted with him in the afterlife. Some common tomb artifacts have been gold, household furniture, clay pots, slaves, and doll figures of people he was close to in his life.

To help protect the king's remains, the Egyptians constructed huge tombs to safeguard their master.

Before the Egyptian pyramids were built, kings were buried in tombs carved in bedrock and also topped by having flat roofs called mastabas.

The Egyptian pyramids were built with a point to represent the ray beam of the sunrays. It was thought that pharaohs arrived to heaven by traveling on a sunbeam.

The builders of the pyramids were the local people and craftsmen selected by the pharaoh. The Egyptians took great pride in their work. They were hard workers and got paid food or money to help build the pyramids and tombs of their kings.

Approximately 20,000 to 30,000 employees developed the pyramids at Giza over the span of 80 several years. It is believed that a lot of the job occurred while the Nile was flooded.

This made it easier to move the large limestone stones from the quarry to the pyramid.

To build the ancient Egypt pyramids more than labour was needed. To create the pyramid in a perfect triangle shape meant Egyitans comprehended general architecture.

It was thought to obtain the pyramid form, builders ran ropes from the external edges to the middle to make certain the pyramid remained true.

Clergymans who practiced astrology where consulted to ensure the pyramids corresponded with the correct stars in the sky.

To develop a pyramid for a pharaoh took the effort of an entire city.

Check out for more information on this amazing culture.

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Friday, 13 July 2012

Osiris the Ancient Egyptian God of the Afterlife

Osiris the god of the afterlife was worshipped as early as the Fifth Dynasty. Many known facts about the god come from the Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Osiris and Isis were thought about the original king and queen of Egypt.

Osiris received the throne after his father Geb stepped down. It was said at first Egyptians were barbarians and cannibals. This upset the god Osiris, so he taught the Egyptians what to eat, how to plant, and how worship gods. Osiris even gave the Ancient Egyptians laws.

Osiris traveled the lands to educate others on what he had educated the Egyptians with. He left Isis his sister-wife as his regent.

Osiris was the oldest son of Geb and Nut. He was brother and husband to Isis, and was brother to Seth and Nephthys.

The god was father to Horus and Anubis. Nephthys his sister, tricked him into thinking she was Isis because she really wanted a child and her own husband-brother Seth was infertile.

Osiris slept with Nephthys and Anubis was conceived. Nephthys was worried about Seth and that he might kill the little one, so she persuaded Isis to adopt Anubis.

Horus was born after Osiris's death. Osiris was killed by his brother Seth because he was jealous and wanted to rule Egypt. Because the god spent so much time travelling all over the lands, Seth had plenty of time to find conspirators against Osiris.

Seth and 72 conspirators murdered the Osiris. They tossed him in a box into the Nile. Isis discovered his body, however before she got a chance to bring him back to life, or bury him, Seth in a rage torn his body and sprinkled the parts all over Egypt.

Isis located all the pieces of Osiris's body. With the help of Anubis, Isis, briefly carried him back to life by making use of a spell she had learned. This incantation enabled Isis to become pregnant by having the new king Horus.

Osiris in death became the king of the afterlife. Because he died and was resurrected, the god was connected with the flooding and retreating of the Nile, and the crops along the valley. He was known to the Egyptians as Lord of Love.

Osiris was usually depicted as a green-skinned (the colour of rebirth) man with a pharaoh's beard, with mummy-wrapped legs, and donned an Atef crown with two feathers at either side. And he was usually portrayed holding a symbolic crook and flail.

The Egyptian pharaoh's thought they were joined with Osiris once they passed away, and meant eternal life.

Osiris's soul (ba) was even worshipped on it's own, especially in the city of Mendes.

Numerous events were held in honor of Osiris. One festival was held on November 13th commemorating the fatality of the god, it was the same day that grain was planted in the ground.

Check out for more information on this amazing culture.

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Thursday, 12 July 2012

An In-Depth Overview of Online Dental Assistant Programs

These days, it has become quite easy for people to learn about online dental assistant programs from the comfort of their home. Students who do not want to study at a normal pace can take advantage of these programs. In fact, students interested in qualifying for certification exams will benefit from these programs too. Students can study a variety of courses as a part of these programs.

What Kinds of Online Dental Assistant Programs are Available?

Earning a certification or diploma will benefit almost everyone, regardless of their aspirations, whether they want to become a dental assistant or a dental hygienist later. There are numerous accredited programs that students can pursue online and the average duration of these programs is about 1 to 2 years. The ability to learn from the job is a part of these programs. Even accelerated programs are available online, which can be completed within one year.

What Kind of Course Work is Included in Online Dental Assistant Programs?

The coursework of online programs that can be pursued online includes subjects such as:

Wednesday, 11 July 2012

Seth the Ancient Egyptian God of Storms and the Desert

Seth was the ancient Egyptian god of the desert, storms, and mayhem. His name was frequently spelt as Set, Setesh, Setekh, and Suty.

The ancient Egyptian god Seth, was often illustrated as an animal called the Typhonic creature, or Set animal, which was no known animal. The typhonic creature was a mixture of animals like a donkey, jackal, and aardvark. The god was also represented by thunder, the desert and infertility.

The earliest depiction of Seth was found on a tomb dating to the Predynastic period. An imagine of the typhonic creature, was found on a mace head of the Scorpion king, a protodynastic ruler.

According to the Heliopolis myth, Seth was born from the sky goddess Nut and the earth god Geb. Seth married his twin sister Nephthys. His brother and sister, Osiris and Isis were twins too and also became husband and wife.

Ancient Egyptians believed Osiris as a kind and wise king who was happily married to Isis.

Seth on the other hand, was jealous of his brother so much that he killed and dismembered him.

Isis, Osiris's spouse, found all the pieces of his body, and brought him back to life, long enough that she could become pregnant with Horus, their son.

Horus grew up as the enemy of Seth. The two gods eventually fought a great battle. Horus was said to have lost his left eye, and Seth lost his testicles. The loss of his testicles was thought to be the reason Seth was connected with infertility.

According to the Shabaka Stone, Geb and Ptah divided Egypt into two halfs. The Upper Egypt (the desert kingdom) was given to Seth and Lower Egypt (the fertile kingdom) was given to Horus.

It's unclear whether Horus bested Seth, however in later periods, Seth and Horus were commonly depicted together crowning the new kings of Egypt. This was a sign of the unity of Lower and Upper Egypt. At some point the gods were integrated together, and the dual-god Horus-Seth appeared for a while.

Seth was also said to guard Ra's evening barge to the underworld, commonly battling Apep who would sneak in the shape of a snake, turtle or additional animal.

Seth was worshipped at the temples of Ombos in Upper Egypt. Seth was also worshipped in Sepermeru, especially throughout the Ramesside Period. There Seth had a temple called House of Seth, Lord of Sepermeru.

The city of Avaris was among the greatest believers in the god of mayhem, and worshipped him even when other ancient Egpytians demonized the god by concentrating on how was abe to murdered his own brother Osiris.

The town of Avaris worshipped Seth from the 2nd Intermediate Period through the Ramesside Period.

Check out for more information on this amazing society.

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Tuesday, 10 July 2012

Silencer Paint Exhaust Systems and Silencers Require Heat and Corrosion Resistant Coatings

Silencer Paint
Silencers are made to provide solutions to customers' acoustic, emission, and filtration control issues for engines and air movement equipment. The selection of the correct type of engine intake and exhaust silencer is determined by the type of engine, the end use of the engine and the degree of silencing required. These silencers can get hot while in use while also getting surface rust and corrosion due to weathering and high operating temperatures. Silencers are used in different industries and come in many types.

Power Generation
Silencers are used in this Industry manufactured for acoustic, emission and filtration purposes for gas turbines and diesel engines in stationary and portable power generation applications. These silencers are used for noise control, structural integrity, back pressure minimization, thermal management, emissions treatment and flow distribution optimization.

Oil & Gas
Silencers are manufactured for oil and gas exploration, distribution and processing. These are used for all air and exhaust needs. Examples of these are exhaust, vent, blower, emission treatment systems. Turbines engines and compressors are used by pipelines and distributors to move product or boost the powder from one station to the other. Meeting noise and emission requirements while achieving the maximum production is critical. Silencers in the oil and gas industries these stations will generate a large amount of noise and emissions which can be bothersome and hazardous to the residents within the area and workers on the job site. Excessive dust, moisture, salt water and heat are also created with these systems.

Silencers and exhaust systems are also produced for marine applications. The marine market which is large and diverse has all different types of needs with small power boats, yachts and to large tankers and government combat ships. Each vessel has a different mean of propulsion which is structured around a gas or steam turbine (boiler) or a diesel engine. Marine exhaust systems require inlet air to make sure the highest power output is maintained while keeping maintenance to a minimum.

Silencers and Exhaust systems are also made for locomotives. The need for this industry is cost effective acoustic, emission and filtration system design and production.

Industrial Processing
Noise control, exhaust, silencers and air filtration systems are manufactured for industrial processing industries worldwide. These systems are usually manufactured customized to the needs of the end user. Air moving equipment such as blowers, engines, pumps and compressors generate noise which is irritating and hazardous. Noise is common to other industries such as consumer goods, water treatment, plastics, power, paper, material handling, chemicals, food and beverage processing.

Waste Water
Exhaust systems and silencers are also manufactured and supplied to the waste water industry. These systems are usually located in populated areas, noise treatment is important. Air intake silencers and exhaust silencers for blowers are usually made custom to the users' needs. Listed below are the different types of systems produced for the above listed industries.

Gas Turbine & Exhaust Systems
The air and exhaust needs for a turbine can be complex. There is a need for noise reduction, air treatment, back pressure minimization and temperature management. A turbine generator is a big investment. These systems should also be protected with a paint/coating that will resist high temperatures, corrosion and weathering.

Blower Silencers
Blower silencers are required for industrial processing and waste water treatment. Silencers are needed on any blower installation. The size of the blower silencer depends on the gas volume. The silencer must be made considering the size and operating speed of the blower.

Absorptive Silencers
The absorptive silencer controls noise by absorbing noise using packing materials. As sound pass through the spaces between these fibers of the material the viscous friction will dissipate the sound energy.

Vent Silencers
These are used with systems that have a pressure valve. Applications for vent silencers are used in oil and gas processing, industrial processing, heat recovery systems, chemical processing and steam boilers. These silencers are used with air, steam and gas vents to the atmosphere where conditions exist in the valve.

Industrial Fan Silencers
Fans are used in many applications such as HVAC, industrial and processing. Devices require parts that rotate while noise can become an issue. Air fans create noise and often need silencers.

Engine Exhaust Silencers
Exhaust systems create heat, noise and also need silencers. These silencers are used in the power, marine, residential, hospital, logging and construction equipment, agricultural machinery, trucks, airport equipment, forestry and military vehicles.

As mentioned, there are many different silencers for different industries and applications. These silencers need to be protected with a paint or protective coating which is corrosion and heat resistant.

To find out more about high temperature corrosion resistant coatings, please contact the Dampney Company Inc.

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Monday, 9 July 2012

Is Online Education Racing Past Traditional Classroom Learning?

A survey conducted by the SRI International for the Department of Education, has found out that "On average, students in online learning conditions performed better than those receiving face-to-face instruction."

The survey was conducted with the purpose of finding out the percentage of students voting in favor of or against online education. The revelation, according to many industry experts, was starkly apparent, with a majority of students voting in favor of online learning. Starting from K-12 settings through to higher level education in colleges and universities, everywhere, we see the growing significance of online teaching and learning.

However, this study was performed not to underestimate or undermine classroom-based learning in any way. The report only suggests and recommends the expansion of online education in the next few years in as many academic institutions as possible to accommodate students from various economic strata.

Let's now look at some of the key benefits of the online educational system.

Can Be Tailored to Meet Individual Student Needs

Internet-based education provides learning experiences that are more tailored towards individual students than is possible in conventional classrooms. It enables "learning by doing" rather than by just listening to what the teacher/lecturer says and silently taking down notes.

Post Assignments Easily

The widely used online Learning Management Systems such as: Moodle, etc. can be used to post assignments, homework, projects, reading lists, and more on web discussion boards. Many K-12 schools, colleges, and universities are already using online Learning Management Systems to manage their classes better.

Teachers can be Contacted Anytime

Traditional face-to-face learning provides limited student - teacher interaction hours and that too only during designated school hours. However, the new-age online educational system allows a student to get in touch with their professors, 24x7, from home, at night or any other time to discuss and share valuable ideas and learning content. Schools that have implemented e-learning settings include an online discussion forum to freely chat and discuss content and assignments with fellow classmates and with the teacher.

A Dynamic Learning Environment

Online leaning is far more dynamic than a traditional classroom-based learning style. For example, you can browse through internet, social media websites, personal blogs, wikis, etc. to find out more on specific topics being currently discussed in the class. You can even connect with the other students via social media sites to exchange notes, reference materials, and relevant website links.

Study from Home

In case you are unable to go to school due to health problems, you can easily log onto the school website to follow what is being taught every day. You can use Skype chats or video conferencing with teachers to know in detail what is being said and assignments given to students as homework.

Jonathan is a professional trainer. He employs latest technology for online class registration and online training registration that results in more attendance and ROI.

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Sunday, 8 July 2012

Adobe Premiere Elements Training

ByPhilippe Peters

What You Can Do With Adobe Premiere Elements Software

There's basically an unlimited range of things you can do with Adobe Premiere Elements. It's a great application for somebody with absolutely no experience whatsoever with editing or video making, but it's also great for somebody looking for more advanced features and functions too. That helps to explain why it's so popular, highly rated and widely used.

For example, you can take regular static images, and turn it into a fun to watch movie. You'll be able to add things like transitions, and hundreds of different effects. Zoom in or pan out on the photos, and then move from one to the next. Add in text or animations, sound effects and much more.

Even if you don't have any video to work with, you can still have a fun movie. Plus, if you have old or low quality video footage you want to use, you can easily enhance the color of the videos, make color corrections, edit out things or pieces you don't want, and on down the line from there.

It's very easy to work with once you get the hang of it. The editing screen and movie creation screen is also very intuitive. You'll be able to instantly share your movie with your social networks and YouTube, you'll be able to add in music without any hassle, organize your videos into projects and files, tag different clips so you can quickly find them and much more.

All of this is great, but you'll definitely want to utilize some training or tutorials for Adobe Premiere Elements. It's an award-winning product, and it's intuitive once you know what to expect, but you'll need something to help get you started and get you on your way.

Today, thanks to various websites and online resources, you can simply do your learning with various online tutorials and guides. These are free, and open to access to anybody without obligation. You'll see step by step instructions and guides, pictures and screen captures showing you specific things to note, and much more.

They're much more fun and easier to work with than long, boring books and printed guides, which not only cost money, but may also be out of date. It's quick, easy and it's free, and it will open up the doors for you to make the most out of this great video editing software.

Philippe is an internet entrepreneur who specializes in developing free educational websites. For more information about his Adobe Premiere Elements tutorials check out his newest website

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Saturday, 7 July 2012

Pinnacle Studio Training

ByPhilippe Peters

The latest version is called Pinnacle Studio Ultimate 15, but there's also Studio HD and a collection of multiple tools in one comprehensive type of package. This includes a whole wide range of fun features, advanced transitions, professional effects and support, sophisticated animations and much more. There are over 2,000 effects on top of additional capabilities, so it's really loaded up.

With all of those features though, you'll be lost if you don't receive at least some basic guidance along the way. Knowing this, there are many different ways and places to get . When you want training for the new version, you'll see that there are tons of books and guides available in stores. Avid even makes their own comprehensive training program, which will help to teach you everything you need to know.

The problem is that it costs $50, which is almost as much of the software itself! Along the same lines, books that you can find in a store will also set you back $20 or $30, if not more. Suddenly your cheap software isn't so cheap. Not to mention that these guides might include a lot of information or material that you're not interested in. Depending on how much experience you have, or what you're trying to accomplish, you may need only bits and pieces, and therefore spending any money doesn't really make a whole lot of sense.

Luckily then, there are ways to get around this problem, including finding free online tutorials. With online tutorials, which cost you absolutely nothing, as opposed to that crazy price tag mentioned above, you'll be able to quickly and simply follow along, and skip ahead right to what you need.

With useful pictures and screen captures showing you what to do, and how, along with brief bullet point and numbered lists of instructions, you'll make a lot of progress in a short amount of time. You'll be able to do it all on your own time, from the comfort of your home, and you won't have to spend a penny on high quality training, and that's the best possible solution.

So, if you're looking to get high quality video editing capabilities right from your own machine, you should definitely consider Pinnacle Studio. Don't feel like you have to shell out all of that cash for a fancy training program, however. Simply find a high quality collection of online tutorials and guide materials and you'll be on your way.

Philippe is an internet entrepreneur who specializes in developing free educational websites. For more information about his Pinnacle studio Tutorials check out his newest lessons at Pinnacle studio lessons.

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Friday, 6 July 2012

The Preposition - What It Is and How to Use It

ByWalter Xan Ashley

In English grammar, a preposition plays very important role. It connects the noun or pronoun with the other parts of a sentence to make it meaningful. There are many prepositions which are used to talk about time, place & direction of a noun or pronoun, few of them are common.

The brief description about Prepositions & its type is given below.


It is a word used to show relationship of a noun & pronoun with other part of a sentence to give it a meaning. It is basically used to talk about the time, place & direction of a noun or pronoun. It can be used with all the Tenses.

Types of Preposition:

1) Preposition of Time: It is used to show the time at which any event or action happened, happen or will happen.

Example: after, around, before, between, by, during, for, past, since, until, within, in, at, on

While others can be used easily, but the usage of at, in & on is quite confusing. The difference between them is given below.

AT: It is used to talk about a particular or specific time.


We will go to the park at 6:00 PM.

We will meet at dinner.

ON: It is used to talk about particular days & dates.


The earth day is celebrated on 22nd April.

I will throw a party on my birthday.

IN: It is used to talk about or show the period of time like period of days, weeks, months, years, seasons etc.


We are planning to visit Europe in summers.

He will be back in a couple of days.


In English we say in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening as these are the periods of a day but we never say in the night, rather we use "at night".

2) Preposition of Place: It is used to talk about the place of a noun or pronoun.

Examples: abroad, above, around, behind, between, IN, AT, ON etc.

The difference in the usage of in, at, on is given below.

AT: It is used to talk about a specific place


I arrived at work early morning.

We stayed at Queen's resort.

ON: It is used to show or talk about a surface as a place.


The rug is lying on the floor.

The painting is hanged on the wall.

IN: It is used to talk about the place which is enclosed in a boundary.


The children are playing in the park.

The toys are kept inside the cupboard.

3) Preposition of Direction: It is used to show the direction.

Examples: to, toward, through, into, next to, opposite, far, near, every

Walter Ashley is a specialist in English writing he writes on Learning English, English Grammar and Tenses. For more information visit at:

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Thursday, 5 July 2012

The Simple Equation That Leads to Revelation

In my previous articles, you have learned that you should bow to the strong leader in order for you to achieve revelation. But also you should know that you cannot bow to just any strong leader. You have to bow to the strong leader of the house. In Ancient Israel, it was established that the house of Yahweh is the temple. There is nothing else, there is nothing else but the temple. This is why Paul said that we are the temple of the Holy Spirit or in other words, the house of God. We are the house of the strong leader.

What we need to do is to bow to the strong leader of the house and as we add these together we'll see what the equal on the spiritual journey. But before anything else, we should recognize which strong leader we would bow to because there are two strong leaders in this universe. Of course, we would bow to the strong leader of the house which is Yahweh.

Our equation now has the strong leader of the house plus "giving" because that's what the letter Gimmel is. It is the rich man that rides on a camel not a poor man on a donkey which is risen up and is proud of the leader of the house and he gives with an open hand. Gimmel is the rich man that gives. This is what Yahweh did, He sent His son, Leader of the house to give His life. Now You cannot do the same thing if you are not a person who is willing to give and I'm not even talking about about finances, I'm talking about your life.

Yeshua doesn't say give your money although He desires that you fund what His mission is. He wants you to give your life. That you don't hear from prosperity teachers very often. They don't want you to come up and work. They don't want you to give your life, they want you to give your money. Well you know what, money is important, no question about it. Without finances, without money, none of the temples would have ever been built. The gold and the silver that was used were very valuable. Without a doubt, our assets are important and giving it is probably that top form of giving nowadays.

On the contrary, it is the giving of the heart. It is the heart attitude of giving that is more important. You have to ask yourself if you are a giving person. As a matter of fact, the barometer for this would be your spouse, if your wife says that you are generous, then you are generous. You will know that's the truth because wives never lie. They always tell the truth. Below Gimel is coincidentally Dalet which is the impoverished man with the open hand up, an impoverished mean that is in need.

Dalet also means a door, an open door because the impoverish man unlike the prideful rich man with his doors locked, always has his door open. He's humble, he wants people to come in and he's willing to receive and so when the rich man or the generous man gives to the impoverished man, it opens a door. So there you have the first five letters of our journey trough the Hebrew Alphabet and keep in mind that there are 22 letters which is quite amazing.

Some people are already stuck because they lack faith that they would receive revelation for various reasons such as not read the scriptures ever or not having a prayer. If you do not practice these sort of things then you are literally stuck in one of the first four letters. remember that no man gets revelation without going backwards.

I'm Jim Staley Mo. It is my heart's desire that you will be challenged and transformed through the materials and resources that are in this article. Whether it's about Jewish holidays, the Sabbath Day, or the meaning of Christmas, history of Easter, origin of Christmas, or any other Hebraic topics, we want you to know the truth because the truth will only do one thing!

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Wednesday, 4 July 2012

How to Make Self-Study an Effective and Enriching Process? Tips for Distance Learning Students

ByKrish Kanna

In the absence of a tutor or regular classroom sessions, self-study is a predominant method of learning and preparation. This pattern of study is very much evident amongst distance learning students, who interface with their faculty only on "requirement" basis.

As distance education is becoming the chosen route for higher education, for students and working professionals, the onus is on self-study methodologies, which will yield the best results.

Self-study in distance education should be approached with discipline and dedication and, will outline the following principles:

Engage in regular study and not last-minute cramming

As self-study is directed by self-paced learning, there is always a tendency to leave everything to last-minute preparation. This ends in cramming in the last- minute, with no understanding of the subject/chapters under discussion. Rote learning is not suited to the modern/innovative pedagogical structure adopted by most Distance Education universities. So, to ensure that you come out with flying colours, follow a regular study-pattern.

Regular study pattern through online timetables

If you are pursuing your higher studies while on job, the best way to be in regular touch with studies is through a study timetable. Chart out weekly schedules, daily schedules, targets and deadlines for self-assessing assignments and model tests. Social networking sites such as Facebook feature apps, which help you to create and customize timetables for your need. In addition, many Distance Learning Universities such as SMU-DE have an online platform EduNxt, with many channels and interfaces to aid self-assessment.

Self-study through collaborative learning and social networking

Sites such as Facebook and twitter sport a vast number of users spread across the globe. Through these sites, it will be easier network with students from the same academic background or pursuing some distance-learning course from the same university. Creating a knowledge network through such channels, will create a platform for collaborative study. In this platform, knowledge exchange and sharing can take place, along with doubt clarifications etc. To elaborate, SMU-DE uses its Facebook identity to interface with its students and allows them to network amongst themselves as well.

Research online for more knowledge resources

The global pool of resources spells easy and anytime access. To learn more about any topic or a subject of your distance-learning course, a query through yahoo or Google will give a flurry of results. The answer to your query will be in the list of results displayed in the online search. Make sure you check the authenticity of the information source before you confirm the answer.

Make notes online/offline

Keeping notes while self-studying not only helps to keep track of what you have learnt so far, but also makes for later reference. With technology-driven interfaces, you can even make notes or jot down points on your PC tablet or desktop, which ever you access more frequently.

Effective self-study techniques will invite more participation in the global learning space, where every study-process can be made insightful and enriching.

As self-study patterns are calling the shots with the mass student populace opting for Distance Education, the self-learning culture is giving way to connected, collaborative and result-giving framework.

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Tuesday, 3 July 2012

Improvisations to Make Distance Learning in India for Better GER

ByKrish Kanna

The 12th five-year plan is geared up to achieve a 30% GER from the present 15% GER of students in the higher education segment. Attracting larger numbers from the student segment not only demands accessibility but also affordability, flexibility and relaxations in the eligibility criteria. With these workable and viable parameters, distance learning serves as the rider to mass education, and, can considerably expand its scope to bring in more students to continue their education.

Distance learning has grown in shape and size, and at present accounts for 22% of the total GER of students in the higher education segment. Considering the needs of the Indian mass, who want to pursue higher education, while continuing to work, distance education can be the bridge for aspiring students/working professionals to achieve their dreams. The areas, which can bolster the initiatives of distance learning in India, are:

Remote accessibility:

At present, India has 544 universities and 3132 colleges. The mushrooming universities in the country have not delivered easy access to students from remote areas. According to a survey, close to 24% of all enrolments in the higher education system is from the ODL system. To boost this percentage, Distance Learning Universities can focus on opening up information/learning centers in regions with low GER, but a vast student potential. This apart, in view of the internet penetration in the country, the online medium of training and studying can be adopted in regions with prominent internet presence.

Innovative pedagogy for higher employability:

As the competitive job industry looks for skilled work-force, students with industry-relevant knowledge about the subjects they have studied, have a brighter chance to land in the right job. Industry - oriented training through cutting-edge course modules, with a right balance between practical and academic training, make a distance learning course more relevant in the modern-day scenario. For instance, SMU-DE's online platform EduNxt features many avenues for all-round learning and development of its students and has a vast student base.

Placement services

Universities such as IGNOU and SMU-DE provide placement services to its students. SMU-DE has a dedicated placement cell, which is networked with the major employment exchanges of the country.

In addition, Job fair initiatives taken up Distance Learning Universities will assure prospective students of the career prospects post a distance learning course.

Introducing new-age courses, economy-based, vocation-sciences

The market-trends determine the growth of different industries and thereby different opportunities. India, being an agricultural economy holds a lot of prospects for professionals who can research on agricultural sciences and give innovative solutions to the Indian farmers. Distance learning courses pertaining to agriculture is more relevant for the larger populace, who would be eager to add value to their family business of farming or otherwise. Similarly vocation sciences training have greater application for the labour force- the semi-urban or the rural section of the society, who can acquire additional skills and earn a better financial status.

Distance education universities such as IGNOU has instituted Schools of vocational education training to promote the study of vocational sciences. In this regard, SMU-DE offers fashion design, and journalism and mass communication courses for students seeking self-employment or job-ready skills at the end of the course; as the vocational sciences subjects centre on hands-on training.

The vernacular medium for education

Primary education in the semi-urban and rural areas is delivered in the vernacular medium. The numbers of students willing to pursue higher education but step back because of the language barrier account for large numbers. Distance Learning courses, if delivered in the vernacular medium, yield the double-advantage: firstly, it can attract more students to continue education and secondly, the ease and comfort of learning in one's mother tongue gives a better understanding of the subject and thereby delivers better results.

Quality with affordability

Quality stands top for all students. And, when distance education comes on par with the regular stream of learning with timely delivery, excellent interface with its students, up-to-date course materials, more number of students will resort to take to distance learning as their main stream.

Relaxations in eligibility-entry, exit, re-entry

Compared to regular stream of learning, which imposes the 10

Monday, 2 July 2012

Interactive Learning Methods Imparting Knowledge

Nowadays, organizations spend huge amount of money in providing training to their employees. Employers not only train the new recruits but also provide training to their existing employees. In order to provide product training, e-learning methods are used due to their effectiveness. E-learning encourages interaction among the learners, and hence it is also known as interactive learning. Social media, urban computing and game based learning are some of the components of this type of leaning process. Social media is constantly becoming popular and is boosting the learning process. Being an important part of interactive learning, urban computing facilitates interaction between the people and their environment with the help of search engines, smart phones, Mac books and PDAs.

Game based learning is a unique e-leaning concept popular in organizations. The fantasy element in games keeps the players engaged in the learning activity with the help of story lines and narrative. Usually theoretical training does not grab much attention and many consider it a boring activity. Game based learning process is free from this limitation. Learners work towards the goal within this type of learning environment. In the process, they select actions and face the consequences for such actions. In risk-free settings, mistakes are made by the learners and they learn the right way to execute things through continuous experimentation. This keeps the learners engaged in practicing thought processes and behaviors that can be changed from stimulated environment to real life.

Success of this type of learning process owes to the proper interaction and active participation of learners. Employees remain engaged in the learning process as it is entertaining and full of activities. An expansive category, game based learning ranges from ordinary paper and pencil games to complex online games as well as role playing games. Collaborative game based role-play enables the learners to implement the knowledge attained by them and get necessary feedback. A part of e-learning, mobile learning also holds an important place in the present corporate environment. Nowadays, the importance of mobile devices cannot be under estimated. These devices help in providing training to employees at any place and any time.

Modules can be transferred to the mobile devices and one can easily access the information from any distant location. Employees who travel frequently can benefit from mobile learning as they need not miss any important learning session. Acceptability of e-learning has eliminated traditional learning methods in organizations across the globe.

Gireesh Sharma is an author writing on Human Resource Management. His expertise includes interactive learning, mobile learning and other Learning & Development matters.

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Sunday, 1 July 2012

Educational Courses Offered Online

Due to ever-changing technology and consumer demand online education has become more and more popular over the years. Technology allows students to have access to their coursework, professors, and peers at anytime during the day. As long as someone has internet access and a computer they can take an online course. There are many types of online education. Colleges and Universities are the forefront of course. But many industries require their professionals to complete continuing education as well. There are many advantages to taking online classes as opposed to attending class in a lecture setting. Online courses are more flexible, typically less expensive, and less hassle then going to a classroom setting. Most online courses are at your own pace with no specific log in times. This is very important for working professionals. They want to log in and out at their leisure. Or, if they need to do their assignments in the middle of the night they are able to do so. Since there is little overhead when offering online classes, they are usually less expensive. The great thing is, the content of the courses do not change. So the student learns the same information at a cheaper price. But, one of the biggest benefits of learning online is less hassle. You do not have to drive anywhere. You do not have to worry about parking and walking to the class. And finally, you do not have to worry about not having a seat in the classroom!

In many online classes you can expect to do the same type of assignments as if you were sitting in a lecture hall listening to a professor. If you were attending class you would expect case studies, papers, quizzes and group work. This is very much the same in online courses. The major difference is discussion board postings as apposed to class discussions. Discussion board postings are like blogs to which students can communicate with each other online. These are very beneficial for group work and networking. Many students who have taken online courses claim they communicate more with their group members and the professors than they did in a classroom setting. Another difference is how you submit your assignments. In an online course the assignments are all attached to an email and sent to the professor. This is pretty easy with technology what it is these days. As you can see, online courses benefit everyone and will be around for a very long time in the future.

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